Antarctic websites, like websites in general, come and go and continually change. The ones below are likely to be around for awhile. Some sites appear under more than one category and therefore are generally described only once.

Many of these sites and their descriptions are included in the appendix I prepared for ANTARCTICA: THE COMPLETE STORY by David McGonigal and Lynn Woodworth (The Five Mile Press, 2001).

I went to all sites listed on 27 January 2007 and removed all that were no longer functioning and added quite a few new ones.

I went to all sites listed on 9 December 2011 and have noted those that do not appear to be active. These will be researched and either the addresses corrected or the entries removed.

Note: Some of these sites are filled with graphics and may be slow to load for those with dial-up internet connections.

—R. Stephenson

Last updated: 27 December 2014

Accessed at least many times since 16 April 2007.


Antarctic Centers
National Programs
Explorers & Expeditions
Education & Kids
Artists, Writers & Musicians
Some E-Books

Antarctic Centers

¶ Major (mostly scientific) centers.

Scott Polar Research Institute [Last checked: 31 December 2013]
Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) is the world's leading academic polar organization. This site is very detailed and comprehensive. Among the highlights:
• SPRILIB, a searchable database with over 43,000 bibliographic records
• Polar Pictures, the database of the holdings of the Picture Library
• Index to Antarctic programmes (comprehensive guide to Internet resources on national programmes, their webpages, current and historic research)
• The Index to Antarctic Expeditions (with links, summaries and related literature)
• Little-known British Antarctic Expeditions
• Polar Museums Directory
• Directory of Polar and Cold Regions Organizations
• 'Virtual Shackleton' is an "interactive exhibit on the life and expeditions of Sir Ernest Shackleton."
• Museum Catalogue (new but so far only Arctic)
• Museum Shop (you can order from the site)
• There are even Kid's Pages including Polar Jokes.

Byrd Polar Research Center [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

BPRC is the closest thing to an American SPRI (and not that close). The site is heavily scientific in content. Among the other things on the site:
• Biography of Richard Byrd
• Polar Pointers, a notable and very extensive collection of annotated links
• Byrd Polar Archives (Ohio State hold the papers of Byrd, Wilkins, Cook Society, American Polar Society, among others)

CRREL [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

The Library at CRREL (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory) in Hanover, New Hampshire, "is recognized as the world's foremost collection of cold regions scientific and technical literature." Its site has several searchable databases and many links. [CRREL is now part of Engineer Research and Development Center or ERDC. This is still part of the US Army Corps of Engineers or USACE.] The Library's website doesn't seem to be accessible anymore.

National Programs

¶ Most countries doing work in the Antarctic have websites for their programs. Most of these have limited content and are of marginal interest. Those below are worth going to, however.

British Antarctic Survey [Last checked: 31 December 2013]
All about British bases, copyright-free photos, databases, virtual tours, news stories and lots of science.

National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

Sections on scientific programs by discipline, journal articles, lots of photographic and satellite images.

U.S. Antarctic Program [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

Information on USAP and its activities. Some good links for maps and images. Video clips. The Antarctic Photo Library secton has hundred of photos.

Antarctica New Zealand [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

Some good school resources—frequently asked questions, information sheets, and education database.

Australian Antarctic Division [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

Maps of station areas, searchable catalogue of library holdings, many copyright-free photos, database of polar words and phrases, station webcams, and the Antarctic Artefacts Register. Quite a good resource for students (see 'Experience Antarctica.')

Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

"Established in 1988 to bring together those managers of national agencies responsible for the conduct of Antarctic operations in support of science." It lists all the stations, has details on the facilities and activities of each, and links to all the national programs (the 'aq' in the web address is Antarctica's own internet domain).

SCAR [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

"SCAR [Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research] is charged with the initiation, promotion and coordination of scientific research in Antarctica. It also provides scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty System." The site has an excellent listing of facts, ediucational and information on various scientific working groups and specialists. Quite a few links for sources of images ('Antarctica in Pictures' under 'Antarctic Information.')


Cool Antarctica [Last checked: 931 December 2013]

This site is the work of Paul Ward who spent four years with BAS, 1985-87. It's commercial in that it sells stuff, but there's also some good news here.
Major sections: Antarctica Pictures; Antarctica Cruise; Facts; History; Ugg Sale; Store; Clothes; Whales; Book; DVD etc.; Schools; Boots; Forum; Site Map; FIDS.
One section I like is the 'Antarctic Expeditions Crew Lists and Biographies.' Lots of information on those who were on expeditions from Bellingshausen to Shackleton's Quest.
Antarctic Sun [Last checked: 31 December 2013]
The Antarctic Sun is produced by the U.S. Antarctic Program's prime contractor, Raytheon Polar Services Company. "News about the USAP, the Ice, and the People." A mostly informal look at life in the Antarctic.

South Pole Gazette [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

"This is a semi-automated journal of online polar news, brought to you by the Shackleton Centenary Expedition. The Gazette contains fresh links to entries made in the last hour, gathered from syndicated news sources and special-interest sites. It acts as a rolling resource for anyone interested in tracking Antarctic news."


¶ The Antarctic Philately site is excellent when it comes to history; among the best. Many webpages will have some coverage of Antarctic history and the better-known explorers.

Antarctic Philately [Last checked: 31 December 2013]
For those with a passion for Antarctic (also Arctic) history, the Antarctic Philately site is the place to go. Besides copious information on stamps and postal history, there is voluminous coverage of south polar exploration from Cook to nearly the present. The highpoints are the numerous biographical entries and a well-done time line stretching from 1519 to 1959. Some portions are nearly book-length. This elegantly designed site also features many seldom-seen photo illustrations.

Heritage Antarctica [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

Will appeal to those interested in Antarctic historic sites, especially the huts of the explorers. Site highlights the activities of New Zealand's Antarctic Heritage Trust in maintaining the historic huts in the Ross Sea sector. Included is a listing of historic sites with accompanying maps. This site also serves the United Kingdom Antarctic Heritage Trust.

National Maritime Museum [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

This is the world's premier maritime museum and it has strong holdings in Antarctic material—artifacts, paintings and manuscripts. Its website is extensive and in many languages. The picture and library collections are online and can be searched. The 'Collections Online' section is a searchable database of over 9000 articles in the museum: at last count 34 of these popped up when 'Antarctic' was searched. The 'Search Station' section has a South Pole page with numerous photographs with lengthy captions.

Shackleton's Voyage of Endurance [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

Boston's WGBH public television station hosts this informative site which includes useful biographies of all of Shackleton's men, details on the lesser known Ross Sea party, historic maps, short accounts of other heroic age expeditions, educational resources such as lesson plans, and information on clothing, food, etc.

International Polar Heritage Committee [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

"This site is provided by the International Polar Heritage Committee (IPHC) as a resource of information on matters related to the human heritage of Arctic and Antarctic regions. It is offered to everyone with an interest in the preservation and protection of the history of exploration, research and exploitation in polar areas. . . . The IPHC is a scientific committee of ICOMOS . . . (the International Council on Monuments and Sites). . . a non-governmental organisation of professional cultural heritage workers, which serves as an advisory body to UNESCO on matters related to world heritage. It was founded in 1965, and now has national committees in more than 90 countries. . . .
Selected site contents:
Other Polar heritage reports
General polar heritage and special conservation news
Polar Heritage Reference Material
Historic Sites and Monuments in Antarctica
Bibliographies and other reference material
Technical and scientific papers
Field and activity Reports
General polar historical information
Related Groups and Agencies
Polar heritage protection agencies
Other heritage protection and environmental agencies
Other Polar agencies and information sources
Register of Expertise
Historians, archaeologists and social history specialists
Conservators and technical conservation specialists"
--Thanks to Paul Chaplin (May 2002)
Antarctic Collections [Last checked: 31 December 2013]
In 2010 the Mitchell Library at the State Library of New South Wales will be celebrating its centenary. Antarctic Collections 2002 is the second part of a ten-year program highlighting significant aspects of the Library's collections.

During 2002, the Library will celebrate its Antarctic collections with activities, events and films. Lines on the Ice: The Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911-1914, will run from 8 July to 27 October in the Library's Galleries. This exhibition uses original images, maps and manuscripts to reveal the human side of Douglas Mawson's landmark, 'Heroic Age' expedition.

This site has images from that exhibit as follows:

Material used in the development of the Lines on the ice exhibition and gallery guide held at the State Library of NSW, 8 July to 27 October 2002
• Images from the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911-1914
• Photographs of the Aurora, group portraits and camp
• Photographs reproduced in Geographical narrative and cartography by Douglas Mawson
• Pictures taken during the Australasian Antarctic Expedition by Frank Hurley
• The Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911-1914 : realia
• The Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911-1914 : drawings and observations
• Charles Francis Laseron - diaries, 21 November 1911 to 24 February 1913
• Dovers family - papers, 1911-1915
• Australian Antarctic Expedition - records, December 1910 to December 1915

Polar Pathways [Last checked: 31 December 2013, at which time the address changed]

A recent initiative of Antarctic Tasmania is the updating and reissuance of Polar Pathways, a guide detailing Tasmania's Antarctic Heritage which first appeared in 1995. Walking and driving tours are included. Although the guide is handy to have, all the information and more can be found on this site.

Antarctic Connections [Last checked: 9 December 2011]

Extensive information on Christchurch's Antarctic heritage. Includes a walking and driving tour which can be downloaded.

Antarctic Heritage and Conservation [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

This section of the Natural History Museum's website focuses on the historic huts in the Ross Sea region and their conservation.
Cool Antarctica [Last checked: 31 December 2013]
This site is the work of Paul Ward who spent four years with BAS, 1985-87.
Quite a bit on history.
One section I like is the 'Antarctic Expeditions Crew Lists and Biographies.' Lots of information on those who were on expeditions from Bellingshausen to Shackleton's Quest.


¶ These sites feature particularly good or extensive chronologies of Antarctic exploration or individual explorers.

Antarctic Philately. [Last checked: 31 December 2013]
This excellent site has tucked away within An Antarctic Time Line: 1519-1959 which is thorough and comprehensive.

Captain Cook Society [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

A very detailed chronology of his Cook's second (Antarctic) voyage. The overall site has a wealth of material on Captain Cook including information on stamps, coins, medals, and Cook's ships, and a long bibliography as well.
New Zealand Antarctic Veterans Association [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
An extensive timeline created by Mike Subritzky, starting in 200 million years BC and going right up to the present.

List of Antarctic expeditions [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
A linked-list starting in the 7th century and stretching to the present.

There is also a timeline elsewhere on this site at

Explorers & Expeditions

¶ These sites concentrate on individual explorers and expeditions.

Byrd Polar Research Center (Richard Byrd and Sir Hubert Wilkins) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
This site has a biography of Richard Byrd (found under 'About BPRC') and a comprehensive collection of links entitled 'Polar Pointers' (found under 'Related Links'), some of which relate to explorers and expeditions. In the 'Archival Program' section (under 'Reserch Groups') is extensive information on both Byrd and Sir Hubert Wilkins (chronology, collection scope and content, finding aid, photographs) whose papers are at Ohio State (there are other papers of Antarctic interest as well). The site also includes several online exhibits: The excellent 'Magic of Antarctic Colours,' 'Echoes in the Ice' and 'Conquering the Ice, Byrd's Flight to the South Pole.'

Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (Richard Byrd) [Last checked: 4 January 2014. The address has changed from earlier.]

Abstract of the article Richard E. Byrd and the Legacy of Polar Exploration, by Warren R. Hofstra, which appeared Volume 110, Number 2.

Byrd 1933 "Discovery" Expedition Film Trailer [Last checked: 5 December 2014]

"In 1933-1935, Byrd went to Antarctica for the second time. Buoyed from the success of his first expedition of 1928-1930, Byrd returned to Antarctica with an expanded scientific agenda. Many branches of science were represented including biology, meteorology, geology, geography, aerial exploration, oceanography, seismology, and terrestrial magnetism. Many "firsts" in the history of Antarctic exploration were achieved by the Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition. While still reliant on dog sleds, this was the first Antarctic expedition on which long-distance automotive transport proved to be of practical use. The first radio broadcast from Antarctica to the rest of world was on February 1, 1934. This expedition was the first to make seismic investigations of Antarctica, providing evidence as to the extent of whether the Ross Ice Shelf is aground or afloat. Byrd's status as a national hero was reinforced upon the conclusion of BAE II, and Byrd was highly sought on the public lecture tour circuit.
The extent of the collection is significant, with more than 500 cubic feet of materials in a wide ranging variety of formats including film elements. Prior to the repository receiving the collection, the materials had been housed in a variety of places, including several warehouses and a barn, and had been moved periodically, resulting in disorganization and a hazardous preservation environment. OSU received a grant from the U.S. Department of Education for the processing of the Byrd Papers, which took place over a two-year period from November 1, 1992 through October 31, 1994. Limitations of the funding necessitated prioritizing the processing of this large collection. Thus, the primary focus of the processing was on the paper documentation and still images. Films received only cursory attention, and were inventoried according to information on the canister or contained within the canisters. No cleaning, repair or rehousing of film elements was undertaken at this time. Consequently, films in advancing stages of deterioration continued to deteriorate, many beyond the point of preservation. Despite the odds, some film elements survive and should be preserved.
A thorough analysis of the film elements in the Byrd collection was undertaken from May July 2012. Unfortunately, the news was not good. We found that many of our films, both nitrate and acetate, were in the advanced stages of decomposition, with no possibility of preservation. The Discovery Lecture Film Series was originally comprised of a total of 28 reels of film. Of these 28 reels, only ten film reels have survived. Many complimentary materials exist in the collection, including detailed scripts that were used by Byrd during the lectures. For the most part, these scripts are typewritten, though heavily annotated in Byrd's hand. Taken together with the films, we get a wonderful glimpse into what it might have been like to be in the audience of one of Byrd's lectures. Additional documentation of the lecture circuit exists in the collection, in the form of schedules, balance sheets, and correspondence between Byrd, his publicity agent and others."

Captain Cook Society (James Cook) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The overall site has a wealth of material on Captain Cook including information on stamps, coins, medals, and Cook's ships, and a long bibliography as well. Included is a very detailed chronology of his Cook's second (Antarctic) voyage.

Shackleton's Voyage of Endurance (Sir ErnestShackleton) [Last checked: 31 December 2013]

Boston's WGBH public television station hosts this informative site which includes useful biographies of all of Shackleton's men, details on the lesser known Ross Sea party, historic maps, short accounts of other heroic age expeditions, educational resources such as lesson plans, and information on clothing, food, etc.

Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The explorer's cousin and family historian, Jonathan Shackleton, has a site that notes recent books, videos and exhibitions, and recounts Shackleton's four Antarctic expeditions.

Shackleton 100 [Last checked: 10 September 2014]

"The principle aim of this website is to introduce the incredible story of Shackleton and the Endurance mission to as wide an audience as possible…"
The main source of information on events planned in celebration of the centenary of the Endurance expedition.

Shackleton in Schools [Last checked: 10 September 2014]

"A teacher planning network and resource sharing facility for all schools delivering lessons and learning regarding Sir Ernest Shackleton, The 1914-17 Endurance Expedition or Antarctica."

Shackleton Speaks (Sir Ernest Shackleton) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

"We present an early wax cylinder record from this period, titled 'My South Polar Expedition' by Lieut. E.H. Shackleton, recorded on 30 March 1909, with the location of the recording apocryphally given as being the Albert Hall. In any event, Shackleton describes here the hazards of crossing the Beardmore Glacier: only ten men in recorded history have ever managed this crossing.
The recording (8.6MB) will open in a new window."

Kodak (Frank Hurley and Sir Ernest Shackleton) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Focuses on Frank Hurley and the Shackleton's Endurance expedition using historic photographs.

James Caird Society (Sir Ernest Shackleton) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The James Caird Society was established in 1994 to honor and perpetuate Shackleton's life and deeds. This very active group has placed a considerable amount material on its website including some good photographs, quite a bit of history on Shackleton's Endurance expedition, the latest Shackleton news and details on the Society itself.

John Hyatt Illustration (Sir Ernest Shackleton) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

A lovely site, beautifully designed. And why shouldn't it be? John Hyatt is an illustrator. Much of the site is devoted to Shackleton and the Endurance expedition. The illustrated Timeline is excellent. It's on the site and scrolls from left to right but it is also available as a 20-1/2 by 29-2/4 inch poster.

Discovery Point (Robert Scott)[Last checked: 4 January 2014]

At the moment Captain Scott receives less web attention than Shackleton. His ship Discovery is beautifully preserved in Dundee, and the associated web site has lots on Scott, his men, the ship and the extensive exhibits on shore at Discovery Point.

Scott's Northern Party [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
New Zealander Don Webster, at Scott base 1960-63, maintains a website and a blog devoted to Scott's Northern Party, commanded by Victor Campbell and including Murray Levick, Raymond Priestley, George Abbott, Frank Browning and Harry Dickason. This is the party that famously over-wintered in an ice cave.

Scott's Last Expedition [Last checked: 13 July 2014]

Created and hosted by the NZ Antarctic Heritage Trust and dedicated to Captain Scott's 1910-13 expedition. Based on the museum exhibitioin Scott's Last Expedition, a collaboration between the NZ AHT, Canterbury Museum (New Zealand) and the Natural History Museum (London). The online exhibition retains the spirit of the original exhibition in its style and content. It is divided into two parts: a text and image-rich journey through Scott's last expedition; and a vitual tour of the exhibition as it appeared at the Canterbury Msueum.

Captain Scott's Polar Ponies [Last checked: 2 September 2016. This link now takes one to a totally different site.]
Alison Jolley's site focuses on the 19 Manchurian and Siberian ponies that participated in Scott's Last Expedition. Lots of interesting information. Gives insight into how people (like me) become obsessed with things Antarctic. If you want to know the name of Oates' pony on the depot-laying journey, you can find it here (answer: Punch).

Edward Wilson of the Antarctic [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
"This web-site is intended to give wider access to the life, work and legacy of an extra-ordinary man."
The individual sections include: 1. Introduction, 2. Childhood, 3. Cambridge, 4. London, 5. TB, 6. Discovery, 7. Ireland, 8. Grouse, 9. Mammals, 10. Birds, 11. Terra Nova.
This is an excellent example of a simple yet elegantly handsome and useful site, created by Duncan Lawie and family member David Wilson.

William Lashly, Antarctic Explorer [Last checked: 12 February 2014]

George and Valerie Skinner—she's a Lashly descendant—have developed this site on one of the 'strong men' of Antarctic exploration. Lashly served on both of Scott's expeditions.

The United States Exploring Expedition 1838-42 and Charles Wilkes [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The Smithsonian Institution has an excellent site on the expedition the collections of which led to the Institution's founding. Extremely large content including the full text of Wilkes' five volume narrative and the scientitic texts.

The Alfred Agate Collection: The United States Exploring Expedition 1838-42 [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The Naval Historical Center at the Washington Navy Yard maintains this site which has a detailed account of the expedtion with many of the original images produced in various media. "The artworks used in this exhibition are taken from the Agate Collection of drawings at the Navy Art Collection. Alfred Agate created many of these during his service with the United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 or in the preparation of the report of the Expedition. On his death in 1846 the drawings passed to his widow, Elizabeth Hill Kennedy Agate, who later married Dr. William J. C. Du Hamel of Washington, D.C. In 1926, one of her daughters from this marriage, Elizabeth A. Du Hamel, sold them to the Naval Historical Foundation. The Naval Historical Foundation donated them to the Navy Art Collection in 1998."

Pete's Polar Place (Frank Hurley) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

This is site is "dedicated to the literature and philately of polar regions and to a lesser extent to non-polar philately." Has an extensive and useful section on Frank Hurley and collections around the world with Hurley material.

HMS Endurance Tracking Project (Sir Ernest Shackleton) [Last checked: 9 December 2011] APPEARS TO NO LONGER BE ACTIVE
The Endurance Obituaries, or at least ones somewhat similar to what was on the Visitandlearn website and created by the same person (John Mann), now appear to reside at [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

This is much more than just a site with a Shackleton focus. Among other things there's information on: Water and Oceans; Antarctica's Future; Antarctic Diet; Hydrographic Surveying; Polar Clothing; Ice, Ice & more Ice; Discovery & Exploration; Ernest Shackleton; Poles Apart; Southern Ocean Life; Latitude and Longitude; Seasons; About Endurance; Endurance Obituaries; Weather; Antarctic Treaty; Volcanoes; Ice Sheet History; and so on. Among the most interesting sections is the Endurance Obituaries. Lots of biographical information on members of the Endurance expedition. Particularly interesting: what happened to the members in later life.

Scotland and the Antarctic (Wiilliam Bruce but also Robert Scott, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Roald Amundsen) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

This is a lengthy portion of the Glasgow Digital Library website and is, in fact, an 'e-book' version of Scotland and the Antarctic by James A. Goodlad which was produced by the Royal Geographical Society in 2003 "to celebrate the achievements of the Scottish oceanographer and polar explorer William Speirs Bruce and to mark the centenary of the voyage of S.Y. Scotia, the research ship of Bruce's Scottish National Antarctic Expedition of 1902-04." The book itself is 118pp.
Very useful.

Transglobe Expedition (Sir Ran Fiennes) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

"In 1972 Ran's wife, Ginny, conceived the circumpolar idea. For seven years they strove to raise support for it and in 1979 set out from Greenwich in a thirty-year-old ice strengthened vessel, Benjamin Bowring, with a colourful crew of volunteers from many countries and backgrounds. The first circumpolar journey round the earth, led by Sir Ranulph Fiennes, was described in the New York Times as the world's last great adventure, and by the expedition patron, HRH Prince Charles as 'mad but marvellous'."

Searching for Sir Hubert (Sir Hubert Wilkins) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Sir Hubert's life cut up into short sections.

La Belgica: Expédition Antarctique Belge - 1897-1899 (Adrien Gerlache) [Last checked: 4 January 2014. No longer appears to be active.]

Quite a bit on this pioneering Heroic Age expedtion.

Tom Crean; Sailor on Ice [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

David Hirzel's excellent podcasts centering on Tom Crean.

Race to the End of the Earth (Scott and Amundsen) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

This major exhibition was at the American Museum of Natural History through 2 January 2011 and elsewhere since. The website lives on with lots of useful details. Too bad about the sound effects.
The exhibition site has since been removed although there is still some information on the show on the Museum's site at
There is also a section "for educators" at
And there is what might have been the original site, or close to it, at

Photos from Mawson's Australasian Antarctic Expedition (Sir Douglas Mawson) [Last checked: 27 December 2014]

Photos held by the State Library of New South Wales but on this MSN website. Unfortunately the scenes are not identified. (Thanks to Bruce DeWald.)

List of Antarctic expeditions [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

A linked-list starting in the 7th century and stretching to the present.

Education & Kids

¶ These sites contain material of interest to teachers and/or students.

Scott Polar Research Institute [Last checked: 14 January 2014]
Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) is the world's leading academic polar organization. This site is very detailed and comprehensive. There are even Kid's Pages including Polar Jokes.

Shackleton in Schools [Last checked: 10 September 2014]

"A teacher planning network and resource sharing facility for all schools delivering lessons and learning regarding Sir Ernest Shackleton, The 1914-17 Endurance Expedition or Antarctica."

TEA (Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic) [Last checked: 9 December 2011]

This is a terrific educational site sponsored by the National Science Foundation and facilitated by Rice University, the American Museum of Natural History and CRREL. Schoolteachers participate in research projects in Antarctica and post their journals here, or can e-mail them and learn more. The content is voluminous. Although the TEA program has ceased and the site has been archived, this in nonetheless a very useful source.

In checking on 4 January 2014, I get no response.

British Antarctic Survey[Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Among the contents of the 'Education Resources' section are • Discovering Antarctica • Antarctic Waves DVD • Antarctic Schools Pack • Discover Antarctica CD-ROM • Antarctic Factsheet • FAQs from primary schools • FAQs from secondary schools.
Bears on Ice [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
From the introduction: "This site allows students to experience Antarctica through the eyes of two Geobears, Berkley and OzGold, who sailed on the Aurora Australis with their Australian, friend and helper, Gordon Bain. Berkley came from Illinois from the 4th grade classroom of Betty Trummel, while OzGold came from Gordon's home in Tasmania. These Bears have traveled to Antarctica and back, have had many adventures and have lived to tell the tale. They have brought back information and photographs that will help you share their adventures."
Classroom Antarctica [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
From the Australian Antarctic Division. Eight "units" including Continent, Exploring, Living, Working, Nature, Climate, International and Stewardship. Lots of opportunities for students and teachers. Aimed at grades 5 to 8.
Discovering Antarctica [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
Sponsorted by the British Antarctic Survey, the Royal Geographical Society and the Foreign & Commonwealth Office, this site is a excellent educational resource. Filled with video and sound clips (like icebreakers crashing through ice and Emperor penguins feeding chicks). Links to the BAS and RGS image libraries.
Exploring the Poles [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
This site was created by Laura Kay, professor at Barnard College who is co-teaching a course on Exploring the Poles with colleague Stephanie Pfirman. Both the Arctic and Antarctic are covered. Sections include the course schedule, related events, polar links, films (and extensive listing although not a lot of information), women (polar women books), and fiction (again, quite extensive although lacking in detail). Let's hope it stays up after the course is done.


¶ The two listed are good sources of information on Antarctic tourism. Most tour operators have their own websites. The IAATO site lists and gives some details on virtually all operators.

IAATO [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
"A member organization founded in 1991 to advocate, promote and practice safe and environmentally responsible private-sector travel to the Antarctic." Its site has a definitive listing of tour operators with contacts and web addresses, a variety of tourism statistics, a book list, a Gallery of photos and a section on Guidance for Visitors to the Antarctic.

Lonely Planet [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Lonely Planet, the guidebook publisher, has helpful information on getting to Antarctica, getting around, clothing, some of the usual landing spots, weather, history.


¶ Some sources for webcam views from various locations and stations.

WebCam Central [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
Webcams are scattered about Antarctica at various research stations. WebCam Central is the best place to go for links to those in operation.

Webcams from Antarctica [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Links to the British Antarctic Survey's webcams at Halley, Rothera, Bird Island, King Edward Point, and the ships James Clark Ross and Ernest Shackleton.
Penguin Webcam [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
"The world's first penguin webcam." It's at "Base Bernado O'Higgins, it's online since Sept 2004. From October till April you can watch a small group of gentoo penguins at their brood place."
—Thanks to Martin Grund.
Australian Webcams [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
Links to those at Australia's major Antarctic stations: Casey, Davis, Macquarie Island, Mawson and on the Aurora Australis. Also included, the not-very-exciting 'krill cam.'
Scott Base [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
Webcam set up at Scott Base, Ross Island. Also on the same page: webcams at Arrival Heights and the Wind Farm.

South Pole [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Webcam set up at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station.


¶ Some good photo images of Antarctica including some that are in the public domain.

Australian Antarctic Division [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
On this site you'll find many images including desktop wallpapers, screensavers, panoramas and Quicktime VRs.

Google Images [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Google Images is a great source for millions of Antarctic photos, maps and images.

U.S. Antarctic Program [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
Hundreds of photos arranged by subject (People, Stations, Scenery, Science, Transportation, Wildlife, Historical, New Photos)

Royal Geographical Society [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Hundreds of photos (1655 actually) including many historical images including artifacts, menus, etc.. There's a superimposed 'RGS' watermark (but not on the thumbnails) but the images can be purchased. A plus is that each photo has details such as date, subject, photographer, etc. There's a search capability as well.

Freeze Frame [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

"The Scott Polar Research Institute in the University of Cambridge holds a world-class collection of photographic negatives illustrating polar exploration from the nineteenth century onwards. Freeze Frame is the result of a two-year digitisation project that brings together photographs from both Arctic and Antarctic expeditions."

Hedgehog House [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Many stunning photographs by New Zealander Colin Monteath and others.

Antarctic Panoramas [Last checked: 15 February 2014]

Rolf Stange, who has worked on expedition ships for more than 10 years, "started to explore the possibilities of panorama photography, using a full-frame DSLR, a panorama head and a fish-eye lense. HDR techniques were often used, especially inside the historical huts, to control the extreme variation in brightness, from the dark shadows to brighter areas. The results are accessible through the links and interactive maps" on this site. Among those included: Antarctic Perninsula (Pleneau Island, Neko Harbour, Paradise Bay, Detaille Island), Ross Sea (Cape Evans, Cape Royds, McMurdo Sound Fast ice edge, McMurdo Base, Hut Point, Observation Hill, Dry Valleys: Taylor Valley, Beaufort Island, Coulman Island / Daniell Peninsula), South Shetland Islands (Deception Island, Penguin Island), South Georgia (Gold Harbour, St. Andrews Bay), South Sandwich Islands, Falklands (Carcass Island, Westpoint Island). More in preparation.

Google's Street View has come to Antarctica! Have a look at…

Shackleton's hut at Cape Royds [Last checked: 5 January 2014]

Scott's hut at Cape Evans [Last checked: 5 January 2014]

Castle Rock, Ross Island [Last checked: 5 January 2014]

South Pole [Last checked: 5 January 2014]

Whalers Bay, Deception Island [Last checked: 5 January 2014]

Neko Harbor, Antarctic Peninsula [Last checked: 5 January 2014]

Artists, Writers & Musicians

¶ Some sites on or featuring artists, writers and musicians.
Antarctic Animation is an interesting site at that is the work of Lisa Roberts at the University of New South Wales. (Also see her website at Both are linked to one another and are of a similar, very clean design.) The Abstract explains the site:
"The aim of this research is first to collect evidence of what the scientists, and others who have worked in Antarctica have observed and responded to in the landscape; second to devise an on-line animated interface through which to engage viewers with both the science and poetics of the data. Animation will be used to increase understanding of changes in Antarctic landscape as identified in the records and accounts provided by Antarctic base workers - the people who have studied it, and physically endured a full year of its changing landscape."
Among the more interesting sections is The Antarctic Thesarus which "aims to animate the Antarctic landscape through the eyes of those who have observed and experienced its changes; to enliven our understanding of what is happening in this icy desert. Links are made between The Antarctic Thesarus and some of the words from The Antarctic Dictionary." Included are some appealing images.

See also information on this site under Antarctic Art elsewhere on this site. [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Valmar Kurol (Montreal Antarctic Society) has a new website up on Antarctic Art. (His other interest is Antarctic Music—see Antarctica Experienced Through Music; Capsule Comments on CDs about Antarctica elsewhere on this site at Several hundred images are displayed in the 'Gallery,' all by Valmar.
UPDATE: Valmar e-mails to say: "Just by way of explanation, the site is still under construction. I expect to put in categories and titles on all the works. They are all oil paintings of a few real sites, but mostly imaginary snow & ice scenes of Antarctica, done over 2001-to date. It may be considered to be impressionistic or expressionistic or cave art or whatever you may want." [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

There's also a link to another Valmar Kurol site, which describes his CD entitled Antarctic Arrival. Valmar writes "The visual and spiritual superlatives of Antarctica are frequently expressed through photography and books but to a lesser extent through music. What kinds of tunes and rhythms does the seventh continent inspire? Is there an Antarctic sound? This CD of musical interpretations of various facets of Antarctica, a collaboration with Marc-André Bourbonnais, is based on my three visits over 1993-95 to the frozen south." [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

David Abbey Paige was an artist on Byrd's second Antarctic expedition. Much of his work during that expedition--mostly pastels--are at the Archives at The Ohio State University. A lovely book was written to accompany the exhibition of Paige's work at the German Maritime Museum [for details on the book, go to 'Antarctic Book Notes' elsewhere on this site.] More recently, they were exhibited at the Hopkins Hall Gallery at OSU. This website displays what appears to be the entire Paige holdings at OSU. The page (as was the book) is entitled The Magic of Antarctic Colors. [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The Art of Robert Charles Haun (1903-1975) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
Haun was an artist with Operation Deepfreeze I. This site has many of his works. They are titled, dated and described. Included are sketches, pastels and oils.

The Alfred Agate Collection: The United States Exploring Expedition 1838-42 [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

"The artworks used in this exhibition are taken from the Agate Collection of drawings at the Navy Art Collection. Alfred Agate created many of these during his service with the United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 or in the preparation of the report of the Expedition."

Polar Artists Group [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
A site that features a number of artists specializing in both the Arctic and Antarctic.

Sir Wally Herbert [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
This is the site of Polarworld, a small publisher of polar books. The principals of Polarworld are Kari Herbert (Sir Wally's daughter) and Huw Lewis-Jones. Featured are art, by Sir Wally and others, and books.

Cliff Wassmann [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
Antarctic paintings from California Cliff Wassmann.

Lisa Goren [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
Massachusetts-based artist who was inspired by her 1997 trip to the Antarctic.

Sue Cooke [Last checked: 23 April 2014]
Antarctic paintings by New Zealander Sue Cooke.

¶ Some webpages of artists, writers, photographers, etc., who have participated in the NSF Artists and Writers Program (excerpted, in part, from the NSF Office of Polar Programs webpage).

Alan Campbell [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
Painter. 1988, 1989, 1993. Watercolors and drawings displayed at shows and galleries in New Zealand, Chile, and the United States. Exhibition catalog.

Neelon Crawford [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Photographer. 1989, 1991,1992, 1993, 1994. Exhibitions at galleries. Exhibition catalogs. Southern Lights Portfolio (photogravures etchings).

Lucia deLeiris [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Painter. 1985-86. 1995. 1998-99. Books: Natural History of the Antarctic Peninsula text by Sanford Moss (Columbia University Press, 1988); Antarctic Journal text by Meredith Hooper (National Geographic, 2000); The Island that Moved text by Meredith Hooper (Viking Press, 2004) The Adélie Penguin: Bellwether of Climate Change text by David G. Ainley (Columbia University Press 2002). Watercolors and drawings shown at museums and galleries.

Caroline Durre [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Lithographs from voyage to Antarctica (Casey and Davis Stations) 1994, with Australian Antarctic Division Humanities Program/Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions.

Peter Hall [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

South African painter and photographer. Recent book: 'Deception Island and the Antarctic Peninsula. An Artistic Adventure.'

Galen Rowell [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Photographer and writer (1940-2002). 1992. Book, Poles Apart: Parallel Visions of the Arctic and Antarctic (University of California Press, 1995).

Norbert Wu [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Underwater photography. 1997, 1999.


¶ A bibliographic section can be found on this site which is similar in ways to the one described below: Tekeli-li —the work of Fauno Cordes.

Representations of Antarctica—A Bibliography [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
"This bibliography was compiled as part of an ongoing study of textual representations of Antarctica by Dr Elizabeth Leane, Lecturer, School of English, Journalism and European Languages, University of Tasmania. The construction of the bibliography, undertaken by Dr Leane and Stephanie Pfennigwerth (Research Assistant to Dr Leane), was supported by an Institutional Research Grant from the University of Tasmania.

The primary aim of the bibliography is to provide a research resource for scholars in the humanities interested in representations of Antarctica, particularly literary representations. Only texts which have, in the admittedly subjective opinion of the compilers, substantial Antarctic material are included. The bibliography covers texts written in English or translated into English. Where a qualifying remark is required, this is given in underneath the relevant entry. The MLA citation system has been employed throughout the bibliography.

The bibliography is divided into eight separate sections covering material relating to Antarctica within a variety of literary genres, and an addition section listing literary and cultural criticism relating to Antarctica:
Fiction, 1950-
Fiction, 1750-1950 (Adult)
Fiction (Juvenile)
Short Stories
Films and Television Programmes
Literary and Cultural Criticism"
Source: Home page of the site.

Some E-Books

¶ Several Antarctic titles are available as free e-books through The Online Books Page at [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
There's a search function (author, title) and a 'browse by subject category' function.

I was able to find and view or download the following Antarctic titles:

The South Pole, by Roald Amundsen (Project Gutenberg Release #4229.

The Worst Journey in the World, by Apsley Cherry-Garrard. Two volumes. (Project Gutenberg Release #14363.

A Voyage towards the South Pole . . ., by James Cook. Two volumes. Page images. ( AND

The Home of the Blizzard, by Douglas Mawson (Project Gutenberg Release #6137.

South with Scott, by E.R.G.R. Evans (Project Gutenberg Release #18129.

Scott's Last Expedition. Volume I only. (Project Gutenberg Release #11579.

South!, by Sir Ernest Shackleton. (Project Gutenberg Release #5199.

The Voyages of Captain Scott, by Charles Turley. (Project Gutenberg Release #6721.

The e-text can be downloaded or viewed in your browser in various formats such as Plain text, Zipped plain text, Accented text, Zipped accented text, HTML, Zipped HTML.
You can also go to and search for titles that are associated with Project Gutenberg.

Google Book Search has thousands of Antarctic titles available, either as full or partial text downloads. Typing in "Antarctic" yielded 3,750,000 hits, most of them modern titles, many of them journals or individual articles. Among those that might appeal to collectors of Antarcticana are titles by: Frederick Cook, James Clark Ross, W.G. Burn-Murdoch, Henryk Bull, H.R. Mill, Robert N. Rudmose Brown, Sir Ernest Shackleton, George Murray's 'Antarctic Manual', Palmer's 'Thulia', James Weddell, Benjamin Morrell, Robert Scott's 'Discovery', and so on. Generally those that can be downloaded in their entirety are books in the public domain. There doesn't seem to be any order in the way the titles appear; one just has to scroll through the results, or make a more specific search. Often titles are available in more than one download. In the case of James Clark Ross, copies at Harvard and Stanford were available. One can view or download the actual book as scanned or can consult the text. With the latter, one can search the text. I found with the Ross that there were occasional problems with the book: missing pages, blurred images, maps folded not open, etc. Nonetheless, this resource is useful and presumably will include in time just about everything ever published.

When you first go to the Google site, look for the section entitled 'About Google Book Search.' This describes well the site and what to expect.

¶ Larry Conrad recently directed my attention to the Internet Archive site which—besides archiving most websites including this one—is a great source for E-books. [Last checked: 4 January 2014]Some repeat those found under Google books and Project Gutenberg. When searched under "antarctic" and limiting the search to "texts," I came up with 720 hits. Among the titles not mentioned above:
Geographic Names of the Antarctic, 2nd Edition, Alberts.
Report on the scientific results of the voyage of S.Y. "Scotia" during the years 1902, 1903 and 1904, under the leadership of William S. Bruce.
The Voyage of the 'Why Not?', Charcot.
Four years in a government exploring expedition : to the island of Madeira, Cape Verd islands, Brazil, Coast of Patagonia, Chili, Peru, Paumato Group, Society Islands, Navigator Group, Australia, Antarctic Continent..., Colvocoresses.
The polar world: A Popular Description of Man and Nature in the Arctic and Antarctic Regions of ..., Hartwig.
Notes on the botany of the Antarctic voyage ... in her majesty's discovery ships Erebus and ... , Hooker.
With the "Aurora" in the Antarctic, 1911-1914, Davis.
The lands of silence, a history of Arctic and Antarctic exploration, Markham.
A narrative of four voyages : to the South sea, north and south Pacific ocean, Chinese sea, Ethiopic and southern Atlantic ocean, Indian and Antarctic ocean ; from the year 1822 to 1831 ... , Morrell.
Antarctic penguins; a study of their social habits, Levick.
The Antarctic Ocean, Owen.
The Great White South, Ponting.
Antarctic Conquest, Ronne.
Fourteen Men The Story of the Antarctic Expedition to Head Island, Scholes.
Album of Photographs and sketches with a portfolio of panoramic views (Discovery expedition).
The Antarctic book : winter quarters 1907-1909, Shackleton.
British Antarctic Expedition, 1907-9, under the command of Sir E.H. Shackleton, c.v.o. Reports on the scientific investigations (Volume 1-2) - British Antarctic Expedition (1907-1909.
The romance of the South Pole : Antarctic voyages and explorations, Smith.
A voyage to the Cape of Good Hope : towards the Antarctic polar circle, and round the world : but chiefly into the country of the Hottentots and Caffres, from the year 1772 to 1776, Sparrman.
With Scott the Silver Lining, Taylor.
Narrative of a Voyage to the Southern Atlantic Ocean..., Webster.
Four years aboard the whaleship. Embracing cruises in the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Antarctic oceans, in the years 1855, '6, '7, '8, '9, Whitecar.
And from the looks of it all of the scientific reports of the Discovery and Terra Nova expeditions.
¶ Larry Conrad also pointed me to a NOAA site with many downloadable polar PDFs. He reports that "it appears that the files are text PDFs (as opposed to images) therefore indexed and searchable. The files I have checked include fold-out plates that have been folded out and folding maps which have been unfolded and scanned (unlike many of the Microsoft and Google scans). The down side is that they are monsters with one around 900Mb."
Many titles are listed, more Arctic than Antarctic, and quite a few that are repeats of those listed above (although different versions). There are also a number of works in languages other than English including Charcot titles, Belgica reports, etc. [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

¶ Joe Coleman at Museum Victoria in Melbourne directed my attention to Biodiversity Heritage Library which offers 99 books and journals relating to the Antarctic. Among the titles: The Antarctic regions (Fricker, Karl), The voyage of the Huron and the Huntress (Stackpole, Edouard), Antarctic adventure and research (Griffith Taylor), The Antarctic manual (Murray, George), Aurora Australis (Shackleton, Ernest Henry), With Scott; the silver lining (Griffith Taylor), Album of photographs and sketches with a portfolio of panormaic views (British National Antarctic Expedition), The Antarctic book (Shackleton, Ernest Henry), The great white South (Ponting, Herbert George), Life in the Antarctic. Sixty photographs by members of the Scottish national Antarctic expedition (Bruce, William S.), Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition (Wilkes, Charles), Scott's last expedition, The South pole (Roald Amundsen), The voyage of the Discovery (Scott, Robert Falcon), The worst journey in the world (Cherry-Garrard, Apsley). In addition there are many scientific reports. All the titles are digitized to a very high level of quality. [Last checked: 4 January 2014]


¶ Most Antarctic webpages have links to other sites. These are among those with the most numerous or interesting links.

Byrd Polar Research Center (Polar Pointers) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]
A very large collection of links, all with annotations. Arranged alphabetically by site name.

SCAR [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Many Antarctic education links to websites in many languages are included.

Scott Polar Research Institute [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Links arranged by categories: Polar webcams; Polar charities; General polar links, etc.

Discoverers Web [Last checked: 9 December 2011]

Massive collection of links covering all aspects of travel, discovery and exploration. Arranged mostly by region and era it has a more than adequate polar section.
Appears to have been shut down when checked on 4 January 2014.


¶ A few links you might have a laugh over.

Monty Python takes on Captain Scott with Italian subitltes! [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Horrible Histories [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Bach of the Antarctic! [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Have a look at some unusual penguins [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

And how about this one in Japan? [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The University of Antarctica! [Last checked: 9 December 2011]

Care to move to a new country? [Last checked: 5 January 2014]


¶ A few miscellaneous sites of interest.

Cooking on Ice A blog on life at US stations much of it focusing on food. (Thanks to Richard Gutman.) [Last checked: 20 September 2014]

Live from the Antarctic 1912 David Hirzel's daily blog which "posts from the diaries of the men who were there. The daily posts skip around from all the expeditions that were active on the ice during the day in question. Thus we have "posts" from Wild, Mawson, Priestley, Scott, Filchner, Amundsen and Shirase (though they have left the field now), the denizens of Cape Evans. I have enough material to run this through the Endurance/Aurora expeditions." [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Antarctic Cats Felines who have ventured south. [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Wikipedia [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Probably the best of the lot for general information. As with all Wikipedia entries, lots of links to other related Wikipedia pages.
   1 Etymology
   2 History of Exploration
   3 Geography
   4 Geology
   5 Climate
   6 Population
   7 Biodiversity
   8 Politics
   9 Economy
   10 Research
   11 Ice mass and global sea level
   12 Effects of global warming
   13 Ozone depletion
   14 See also
   15 Notes
   16 References
   17 External links

Atlas of Antarctic Research [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

This USGS site features an Antarctic GIS of sorts which one can navigate around the continent, adding a wide variety of features categorized into grouping under Reference, Geographic Names, Locations, Hydrography, Orthoimagery, Elevation, Satellite Imagery and Physiography.

International Polar Year 2007-2008 [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

All 228 endorsed IPY projects are described, plus lots more. Produced by the World Meteorolgical Organization and the International Council for Science.
The main sidebars include:
      Contact IPY
      National IPY Committees
      Youth and Early Career
      Who's Who
      IPY History
      IPY Site Contributors
      IPY Project Database
      Data and Information

NASA and the International Polar Year (IPY) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

This section of NASA's website focuses on the IPY and includes lots of content.

CIA's Antarctica page [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The CIA's Factbook on Antarctica employs the standard format used for all countries, the categories are not always relevant—percentage of land in permanent crops, for example—but it is still worth a look.

Antarctic Treaty [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The site of the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat which "was established in 2004 to: 1) support the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) and the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP); 2) promote the official information exchange between the Parties of the Antarctic Treaty; 3) collect, maintain and publish the records of the ATCM and the CEP and; 4) provide information on the Antarctic Treaty system." The site's major sections are: Antarctic Treaty; Environmental Protocol; Meetings; Documents: Topics; Information Exchange; News; Newsletter; and Links.

Tasmanian Polar Network (TPN) [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The Tasmanian Polar Network (TPN) gives Antarctic shipping schedules, information about polar ships calling at Hobart, some news on polar events, and dates of conferences.

The ANARE Club [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

The ANARE Club, founded in 1951 by veterans of the early Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE), highlights some of its activities at but it also notes Antarctic news of interest to non-members particularly Australians.

Website for those who are interested in or served on the icebreaker Edisto [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

Website for those who are interested in or served on the icebreaker Glacier [Last checked: 4 January 2014]

And for those who are interested in or served in the Antarctic. Have a look at the Old Antarctic Explorers site [Last checked: 4 January 2014]