ANTARCTIC HISTORIC SITES

Launched: 9 July 2001. Last Updated: 1 April 2007.
Some Published Sources on Historic Sites in Antarctica
Historic Huts in the Antarctic from the 'Heroic Age'
Historic Monuments in Antarctica
Heritage Sites
Historic Guide to Ross Island, Antarctica


SOME PUBLISHED SOURCES ON HISTORIC SITES IN ANTARCTICA

The Historic Huts of the Ross Sea Region. Compiled and written for Antarctic Heritage Trust by Paul Chaplin with reference to material produced by David L. Harrowfield. Published by Antarctic Heritage Trust, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch, New Zealand. 24 pages. No date (ca. late 1990s). This pamphlet includes a map locating 34 historic sites in the Ross Sea Region and highlights the following sites with photographs, floor plans, etc: Scott's Discovery Hut, Shackleton's Cape Royd's Hut, Scott's Cape Evans Hut, and Borchgrevink's Cape Adare Hut.

Icy Heritage: Historic Sites of the Ross Sea Region. By David L. Harrowfield. (Christchurch: Antarctic Heritage Trust, 1995, 88 pages, numerous color and black and white photo illustrations.) Contents: Map; The Historic Sites: Cape Adare/Robertson Bay [(1) Huts on Ridley Beach; (2) Hanson's Grave; (3) Supply Depot-Ridley Beach; (4) Supply Depot-Cape Adare; (5) Supply Depot, Cairn and Camp Site-Cape Adare; (6) Cape Site-Robertson Bay; (7) Rock Hut-Duke of York Island; (8) Supply Depot-Crescent Bay Duke of York Island; (9) Cave-Penelope Point, Robertson Bay]. Possession Islands [(10) Message Post-Svend Foyn Island]. Coulman Island [(11) Message Post-Cape Wadworth]. Terra Nova Bay [(12) Site of Ice Cave-Inexpressible Island; (13) Supply Depot-Hells Gate Moraine]. Ross Island [(14) Building-Hut Point; (15) Cross-Hut Point; (16) Building-Cape Royds; (17) Building-Cape Evans; (18) Cross-Wind Vane Hill, Cape Evans; (19) Message Post-Cape Crozier; (20) Rock Hut-Cape Crozier; (21) Supply Depot-Mount Cis; (22) Cross-Observation Hill]. South Victoria Land [(23) Supply Depot-Ferrar Glacier; (24) Supply Depot-Cathdral Rocks, Ferrar Glacier; (25) Supply Depot-Davis Bay (now Salmon Bay); (26) 'Granite House'-Cape Geology, Granite Harbour; (27) Camp Site-Devils Punchbowl, Granite Harbour; (28) Supply Depot and Cairn-Cape Roberts; (29) Supply Depot-Depot Island; (30) Camp Site, Supply Depot and Cairn-Cape Bernacchi; (31) Supply Depot-Butter Point, Bowers Piedmont Glacier. Queen Maud Mountains [(32) Amundsen's Cairn-Mount Betty]. Queen Alexandra Range [(33) 'Prestrud's Cairn'-Scott Nunataks]. Rockefeller Mountains [(34) Fokker Aircraft-Beryl Lake]. Working to Save the Past. The Early Expeditions. List of Sites. Selected Bibliography. Glossary. Index. Each site is fully described.

Mawson's Huts: An Antarctic Expedition Journal. By Alasdair McGregor, Foreword by Sir Edmund Hillary. (Alexandria, NSW, Australia: Hale & Iremonger Pty Ltd, 1998, 194 pages, color photographic illustrations and black and white drawings in the text. ISBN: 086806653-2) "In early January 1912, a party of 18 young men landed on a small rocky peninsula on the coast of Antarctica, directly to the south of Australia. In doing so, they had journeyed past the edge of the then known world. Over the next two years they struggled against appalling winds and cold, yet managed to explore significant tracts of the ice-bound coast and hinterland in pursuit of scientific knowledge. Their leader was 30-year-old geologist from Adelaide, Dr Douglas Mawson. The story of his survival after the death of his two companions while far from the expedition's base camp has justly become the suff of legend.
Nearly 86 years later another party landed on the still remote and wild Cape Denison, the site of Mawson's winter quarters. Their aim was to rescue the huts that Mawson's men sheltered and worked in from unrelenting assaults of wind, ice and time. In so doing the party ensured that these rare and priceless relics from the heroic era of Antarctic exploration, the age of Scott, Amundsen and Shackleton, would survive to their centenary and beyond.
For nearly two months over the summer of 1997-8, 13 members of the AAP Mawson's Huts Foundation work party battled what Mawson dubbed the "home of the blizzard" to complete urgent repairs to the Cape Denison huts. Mawson's Huts: An Antarctic Expedition Journal is artist and photographer Alasdair McGregor's personal account of the trials and triumphs of living and working in the windiest place on earth. Vivid descriptions of landscape and wildlife are intertwined with reflections on the history and significance of a great Australian and his vision in this rare glimpse of Antarctica, past and present."
--From the back cover.

Reclaiming a Lost Antarctic Base. By Michael Parfit, Photographs by Robb Kendrick. In National Geographic Vol 183, No 3, pp 110-126, March 1993. A survey and restoration team visits "...historic East Base, the United States' first permanent toehold in Antarctica, surrendered to the cold in 1948." East Base was established in 1940 on Stonington Island, Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. It was here where the first two women winter-overed: Edith "Jackie" Ronne and Jennie Darlington.

Sledging into History. By David L. Harrowfield. (Auckland: The Macmillan Company, 1981, 119 pages, numerous color and black and white photo illustrations and plans.) Contents: Preparation for the Field. Sledging into History: Cape Royds. In the Wake of Scott: Cape Evans. They Passed this Way: Hut Point. The Historic Huts and their Future. Appendices: Chronological List of Expeditions to the Ross Dependency Sector of Antarctica. Personnel of Expeditions' Shore Parties. Illustrators with Expeditions of Scott and Shackleton. Provisions--Discovery, Nimrod and Terra Nova Expeditions. Summary of Known Early Historic Sites in the Ross Dependency. Restoration Parties and Caretakers. This book "...is a chronicle of modern caretaking work, and such brief sketches of the personalities, the plans, and the achievements of the pioneers as can be deduced from old encampments, and to old records."

Two Huts in the Antarctic. By L. B. Quartermain. (Wellington, New Zealand: R. R. Owen, Government Printer, 1963, 85 pages, 30 mostly black and white photo illustrations.) Contents: Two Huts in the Antarctic; The Story of the Huts; The Huts at Cape Adare; The Hut at Hut Point; The Hut at Cape Royds; The Hut at Cape Evans; Interlude; Man Comes Back; Endeavor; Restoration; The Huts Today. Focuses on the history of the Ross Sea huts, their condition when re-visited and their initial restoration.

Ten Myths About the Preservation of Historic Sites in Antarctica and Some Implications for Mawson's Huts at Cape Denison. By Janet Hughes, Cultural Heritage Research Centre, University of Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Appearing in the Polar Record 36 (197): 117-130 (2000). Contents: Introduction. Misunderstanding of deterioration processes. Simplistic assumptions about how historic buildings should be conserved. Inappropriate comparisons between dissimilar sites. Conclusions. Acknowledgments. References. ABSTRACT: "A review of popular writing on the subject of preservation of historic sites in Antarctica, including buildings, graves, and artefacts, has revealed many misconceptions about the existence and cause of deterioration problems. These myths include the belief that the artefacts inside the Ross Dependency huts are in a near perfect state of preservation and that there is no corrosion in Antarctica because of the dry cold. Further examination, however, shows these views to be incorrect. These and other misconceptions are classified into three groups: (1) misunderstanding or denial of deterioration processes in Antarctic conditions; (2) simplistic assumptions about how historic buildings should be conserved in Antarctica; and (3) inappropriate comparisons between dissimilar sites.
There has been considerable debate in Australia and New Zealand about how historic Antarctic buildings should be preserved. Proposed preservation methods have covered a wide range from dismantling and repatriation to a museum, re-cladding with new timber, insertion of vapour barriers inside walls to exclude ice ingress, covering buildings with a dome, and, at the other end of the spectrum of views, minimal intervention, The preservation of artefacts has also been an issue, particularly concerning whether artefacts can be effectively preserved in Antarctica or whether it is necessary to treat and store them at museums outside Antarctica. It is important to encourage consideration of all appropriate means of preservation, but it is particularly important that the causes of deterioration are understood (that is, correct diagnosis) before prescribing treatment."



HISTORIC HUTS IN THE ANTARCTIC FROM THE 'HEROIC AGE'

This listing was prepared by Robert K. Healand, Archivist and Curator, Scott Polar Research Institute. It appears here courtesy of Mr Headland and SPRI.

Existing Huts (7)

Location Winter Years Expedition Winter Leader (Ship) Maintained by
Cape Adare 1899 British Antarctic Expedition (1898-1900) Carsten Borchgrevink (Southern Cross) Antarctic Heritage Trust (N.Z.)
Hut Point 1902, 1903
1916
British National Antarctic Expedition (1901-04)
Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedtion (1914-17)
Robert Scott (Discovery)
.
Antarctic Heritage Trust (N.Z.)
Snow Hill Island 1902, 1903 Swedish South Polar Expedition (1901-03) Otto Nordenskjöld (Antarctic) Instituto Antártico Argentino
Laurie Island 1905-present Oficina Meteorológica Argentina (1904-05) Otto Diebel (Uruguay) Instituto Antártico Argentino
Cape Royds 1908 British Antarctic Expedition (1907-09) Ernest Shackleton (Nimrod) Antarctic Heritage Trust (N.Z.)
Cape Evans 1911, 1912
1915, 1916
British Antarctic Expedition (1910-13)
Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-17)
Robert Scott (Terra Nova)
Æneas Mackintosh (1915) Aurora)
Antarctic Heritage Trust (N.Z.)
Commonwalth Bay 1912, 1913 Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-14) Douglas Mawson (Aurora) Mawson's Hut Foundation

Ruins (roofless) (4)

Location Winter Years Expedition Winter Leader (Ship) Maintained by
Paulet Island 1903 Swedish South Polar Expedition (1901-03) Carl Anton Larsen (Antarctic) Instituto Antártico Argentino
Hope Bay 1903 Swedish South Polar Expedition (1901-03) Gunnar Andersson (Antarctic) Instituto Antártico Argentino
Laurie Island 1903,
1904
Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902-04)
Oficina Meteorológica Argentina (1904-05)
William Bruce (Scotia) Instituto Antártico Argentino
Cape Adare 1911 British Antarctic Expedition (1910-13) Victor Campbell (Terra Nova) Antarctic Heritage Trust (N.Z.)

Sites where Huts were deployed but where they no longer exist (9)

Location Winter Years Expedition Winter Leader (Ship) Reason for loss
Iles Kerguelen 1902 German South Polar Expedition (1901-03) Emil Werth (Gauss) Dilapidation
Booth Island 1904 French Antarctic Expedition (1903-05) Jean Charcot (Français) Dilapidation
Petermann Island 1909 French Antarctic Expedition (1908-10) Jean Charcot (Porquoi Pas?) Dilapidation
Bay of Whales 1911 Norwegian Antarctic Expedition (1910-12) Roald Amundsen (Fram) Calving of the Ice Shelf
Inexpressible Island 1912 British Antarctic Expedition (1910-13) Victor Campbell (Terra Nova) Ablation and melting
Shackleton Ice Shelf 1912 Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-14) Frank Wild (Aurora) Calving of the Ice Shelf
Macquarie Island 1912, 1913,
1914, 1915
Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-14)
Commonwealth Meteorological Expedition (1914-16)
George Ainsworth (Aurora)
Harold Power (1914), A. Tullock (1915)
Dilapidation
Point Wild 1916 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-16) Frank Wild (Endurance boats) Overwhelmed in storm
Waterboat Point 1921 British Expedition to Graham Land (1920-22) Thomas Bagshawe (Svend Foyn) Dilapidation


HISTORIC MONUMENTS IN ANTARCTICA

The listing below was developed at Antarctic Treaty consultative meetings VII, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, and XVII and appears as Section 4 in the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978... (Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, October 1995).

It has been revised and updated to September 26, 2006, from information on the website of the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat, Committee for Environmental Protection, Antarctic Protected Areas (http://cep.ats.aq/cep/apa/index.html)

There is an accompanying location map at
http://cep.ats.aq/cep/apa/hsm/index.html


1. Flag mast at South Pole
90°S. Flag mast erected in December 1965 at the geographic South Pole by the first Argentine Overland Polar Expedition.

2. Rock cairn and plaques on Ongul Island, Prins Harald Kyst
69°00'S, 39°35'E. Rock cairn and plaques at Syowa Station (Japan) in memory of Shin Fukushima, a member of the 4th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, who died in October 1960 while performing official duties. Some of his ashes repose in the cairn.

3. Rock cairn and plaque on Proclamation Island, Enderby Land
65°51'S, 53°41'E. Rock cairn and plaque erected in January 1930 by Sir Douglas Mawson to commemorate the landing by a party of the British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition, 1929-31.

4. Bust and plaque at 'Pole of Inaccessibility'
83°06'S, 54°58'E. Station building to which a bust of Vladimir I. Lenin is fixed, together with a plaque in memory of the conquest of the Pole of Inaccessibility by Soviet Antarctic explorers in 1958.

5. Rock cairn and plaque at Cape Bruce, Mac. Robertson Land
67°25'S, 60°47'E. Rock cairn and plaque erected in February 1931 by Sir Douglas Mawson to commemorate the landing by a party of the British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition, 1929-31.

6. Rock cairn and canister at Walkabout Rocks, Vestfold Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land
68°22'S, 78°32'E. Rock cairn erected in 1939 by Sir Hubert Wilkins. The cairn houses a canister containing a record of his visit.

7. Stone and plaque at Mabus Point, Queen Mary Land
66°33'S, 93°01'E. Stone with inscribed plaque erected at Mirny Observatory (Russia) in memory of driver-mechanic Ivan Khmara who perished on fast ice, 21 January 1956.

8. Monument sledge and plaque at Mabus Point, Queen Mary Land
66°33'S, 93°01'E. Metal monument sledge with plaque at Mirny Observatory (Russia) in memory of driver-mechanic Anatoly Shcheglov who perished in the performance of official duties, 25 February, 1962.

9. Cemetery on Buromskiy Island, Queen Mary Land
66°32'S, 93°00'E. Cemetery in which are buried Soviet, Czechoslovak and German citizens, members of Soviet Antarctic Expeditions, who perished in the performance of official duties on 3 August, 1960.

10. Observatory at Bunger Hills, Queen Mary Land
66°16'S, 100°45'E. Magnetic observatory at Dobrowolski Station (Poland) with plaque in memory of the opening of Oazis Station in 1956.

11. Tractor and plaque at Vostok Station
78°28'S, 106°49'E. Heavy tractor with plaque at Vostock Station (Russia) in memory of the opening of the station in 1957.

12. Subsumed into HSM 77
[12. Cross and plaque at Cape Denison, George V Land, erected in 1913 by Sir Douglas Mawson on a hill situated 300 meters west by south from the main hut of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition of 1911-14 (67° 00'S 142° 42'E).The cross and plaque commemorate Lieutenant B.E.S. Ninnis and Dr. X. Mertz, members of the expedition, who died in 1913 while engaged in the work of the expedition.]

13. Subsumed into HSM 77
[13. Hut at Cape Denison, George V Land, built in January 1912 by Sir Douglas Mawson for the Australasian Antarctic Expedition of 1911-14 (67° 00'S 142° 42'E). This was the main base of the expedition.]

14. Ice cave at Inexpressible Island, Terra Nova Bay, Scott Coast
74°54'S, 163°43'E. Site of ice cave constructed in March 1912 by Victor Campbell's Northern Party of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13. The party spent the winter of 1912 in this ice cave.

15. Hut at Cape Royds, Ross Island
77°33'S, 166°10'E. Hut built in February 1908 by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1907-09, led by Sir Ernest Shackleton. Designated as ASPA No. 157

16. Hut at Cape Evans, Ross Island
77°38'S, 166°24'E. Hut built in January 1911 by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13, led by Captain Robert F. Scott. Designated as ASPA No. 155.

17. Cross at Cape Evans, Ross Island
77°38'S, 166°24'E. Cross on Windvane Hill erected by Ross Sea party of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914-16, led by Sir Ernest Shackleton, in memory of three members of the party who died in the vicinity in 1916. Included in the area designated as ASPA No. 155.

18. Hut at Hut Point, Ross Island
77°50S, 166°37'E. Hut built in February 1902 by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1901-04, led by Captain Robert F. Scott. Designated as ASPA No. 158 19. Cross at Hut Point, Ross Island
77°50'S, 166°37'E. Cross erected in February 1904 by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1901-04, in memory of George Vince, a member of the expedition, who died in the vicinity.

20. Cross on Observation Hill, Ross Island
77°51'S, 166°41'E. Cross erected in January 1913 by the British Antarctic Expedition of 1910-13 in memory of Captain Robert F. Scott's party which perished on the return journey from the South Pole in March 1912.

21. Hut at Cape Crozier, Ross Island
77°31'S, 169°22'E. Remains of stone hut constructed in July 1911 by Dr Edward Wilson's party of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13, during the winter journey to collect emperor penguin eggs. Situated within ASPA No. 124

22. Hut at Cape Adare, Borchgrevink Coast
71°18'S, 170°12'E. Hut built in February 1899 during the Southern Cross Expedition, 1898-1900 led by Carsten E. Borchgrevink. There are three huts. Two date from Borchgrevink's expedition and one from Scott's Northern Party, 1910-11. Designated as ASPA No. 159

23. Grave at Cape Adare, Borchgrevink Coast
71°17'S, 170°13'E. Grave of Norwegian biologist Nicolai Hanson, a member of Carsten E. Borchgrevink's Southern Cross Expedition, 1898-1900. This is the first known grave in the Antarctic.

24. Rock cairn at Mount Betty, Queen Maud Range
85°11'S, 163°47'W. Rock cairn, known as 'Amundsen's cairn', on Mount Betty, erected by Roald Amundsen on 6 January 1912 on his way back to 'Framheim' from the South Pole.

25. De-listed
[25. Hut and plaque on Peter I Oy, built by the Norwegian Captain Nils Larsen in February 1929 at Framnaesodden (68° 47'S 90° 42'W). The plaque is inscribed "Norvegia-ekspedisjonen 2/2 1929."]

26. Installations at Barry Island, Debenham Islands, Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula
68°07'S, 67°06'W. Abandoned installations of San Martin Station (Argentina), with cross, flag mast, and monolith built in 1951.

27. Cairn with plaque at Megalestris Hill, Petermann Island, Antarctic Peninsula
65°10'S, 64°09'W. Cairn with plaque erected in 1909 by the second French expedition led by Jean-Baptiste E. A. Charcot.

28. Cairn, pillar and plaque at Port Charcot, Booth Island, Antarctic Peninsula
65°03'S, 64°02'W. Rock cairn with wooden pillar and plaque inscribed with the names of the first French expedition led by Jean-Baptiste E. A. Charcot which wintered here in 1904 aboard Le Français.

29. Lighthouse on Lambda Island, Melchior Islands, Antarctic Peninsula
64°18'S, 62°58'W. Lighthouse named Primero de Mayo erected by Argentina in 1942. This was the first Argentine lighthouse in the Antarctic.

30. Shelter at Paradise Harbour, Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula
64°49'S, 62°51'W. Shelter erected in 1950 near the Gabriel Gonzales Videla Base (Chile) to honour Gabriel Gonzales Videla, the first Head of State to visit the Antarctic.

31. De-listed
[31. Memorial plaque marking the position of a cemetery on Deception Island (62° 59'S 60° 34'W) where some 40 Norwegian whalers were buried in the first half of the twentieth century. The cemetery was swept away by a volcanic eruption in February 1969.]

32. Monolith on Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands
62°28'S, 59°40'W. Concrete monolith erected in 1947 near Capitan Arturo Prat Base (Chile). Point of reference for Chilean Antarctic hydrographic surveys.

33. Shelter, cross and plaque on Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands
62°29'S, 59°40'W. Shelter and cross with plaque near Capitan Arturo Prat Base (Chile). Named in memory of Lieutenant-Commander Gonzales Pacheco, who died in 1960 while in charge of the station.

34. Bust on Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands
62°30'S, 59°41'W. Bust at Capitan Arturo Prat Base (Chile) of the Chilean naval hero Arturo Prat, erected in 1947.

35. Cross and statue on Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands
62°29'S, 59°40'W. Wooden cross and statue of the Virgin of Carmen erected in 1947 near Capitan Arturo Prat Base (Chile).

36. Plaque at Potter Cove, King George Island, South Shetland Islands
62°14'S, 58°39'W. Metal plaque erected by Eduard Dallmann to commemorate the visit of his German expedition on 1 March 1874 on board Grönland, the first steamship to reach Antarctica.

37. Statue at Trinity Peninsula, Antarctic Peninsula
63°19'S, 57°54'W. Statue at General Bernard O'Higgins Base (Chile) of Bernard O'Higgins, the first ruler of Chile to foresee the importance of Antarctica.

38. Hut on Snow Hill Island, Antarctic Peninsula
64°22'S, 56°59'W. Hut built in February 1902 by the main party of the Swedish South Polar Expedition led by Otto Nordenskjöld.

39. Hut at Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula, Antarctic Peninsula
63°24'S, 56°59'W. Stone hut built in January 1903 by a party of the Swedish South Polar Expedition. Site has an association with ASPA No. 148

40. Bust, grotto, statue, flag mast, graveyard and stele at Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula, Antarctic Peninsula
63°24'S, 56°59'W. Bust of General San Martin, grotto with a statue of the Virgin of Lujan, and a flag mast at Esperanza Base (Argentina). Erected by Argentina in 1955; together with a graveyard with stele in memory of members of Argentine expeditions who died in the area.

41. Hut and grave on Paulet Island, Antarctic Peninsula
63°34'S, 55°45'W. Stone hut built in February 1903 by survivors of the wrecked vessel Antarctic under Captain Carl A. Larsen, members of the Swedish South Polar Expedition led by Otto Nordenskjöld, together with a grave of a member of the expedition and the rock cairn built by the survivors of the wreck at the highest point of the island to draw the attention of rescue expeditions.

42. Huts, magnetic observatory and graveyard at Scotia Bay, Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands
60°44'S, 44°41'W. Stone hut built in 1903 by the Scottish Antarctic Expedition led by William S. Bruce; the Argentine meteorological hut and magnetic observatory, built in 1905; and a graveyard with seven graves, the earliest of which dates from 1903 and is of Alan Ramsey, engineer with the Scottish Antarctic Expedition.

43. Cross at 'Piedrabuena Bay', Filchner Ice Front, Weddell Sea
77°58'S, 38°48'W. Cross erected in 1955, 1300 m north-east of General Belgrano I Station (Argentina) (station subsequently destroyed during break-up of ice shelf).

44. Plaque at Nivlisen ice front, Prinsesse Astrid Kyst, Dronning Maud Land
70°43'S, 11°40'E. Plaque erected at the temporary Dakshin Gangotri Station (India) listing the names of the members of the First Indian Antarctic Expedition which landed nearby on 9 January 1982.

45. Plaque at Metchnikoff Point, Brabant Island, Antarctic Peninsula
64°02'S, 62°34'W. Plaque mounted at a height of 70 m on the crest of the moraine separating Metchnikoff Point from the glacier. Erected by members of the Joint Services Expedition, 1983-85, to commemorate the first landing on Brabant Island by the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, 1897-99, led by Adrien V. de Gerlache de Gomery. The earliest known photographs of Antarctica were taken during this expedition.

46. Buildings and installations at Port-Martin, Terre Adélie
66°49'S, 141°23'E. All buildings and installations of Port-Martin Base constructed in 1950 by the 3rd French expedition and partly destroyed by fire during the night of 23-24 January 1952.

47. Building on Île des Pétrels, Terre Adélie
66°41'S, 140°01'E. Wooden building called 'Base Marret' where seven men under the command of Mario Marret wintered in 1952 following a fire at Port Martin Base.

48. Cross on Île des Pétrels, Terre Adélie
66°41'S, 140°01'E. Cross erected on the north-east headland of the island in memory of André Prudhomme, chief meteorologist of the 3rd French International Geophysical Year expedition, who disappeared during a storm on 7 January 1959.

49. Pillar at Bunger Hill, Queen Mary Land
66°16'S, 100°45'E. Concrete pillar erected by the First Polish Antarctic Expedition at Dobrowolski Station (Poland) in January 1959 for gravity measurements.

50. Plaque at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands
62°12'S, 59°01'W. Plaque mounted on a sea cliff south-west of the Chilean and Soviet stations to commemorate the research vessel Professor Siedlecki, the trawler Tazar and their crews, members of the first Polish Antarctic maritime research expedition, which landed here in February 1976.

51. Grave and cross at Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetland Islands
62°10'S, 58°28'W. Grave of Wlodzimierz Puchalski, surmounted by an iron cross, on a hill south of Arctowski Station (Poland). Puchalski was an artist and producer of documentary nature films who died on 19 January 1979 whilst working at the station.

52. Monolith at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands
62°13'S, 58°58'W. Monolith erected to commemorate the establishment on 20 February 1985 of Great Wall Station (China) by the First Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition.

53. Monolith and plaques on Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands
61°06'S, 54°50'W. Monolith and plaques commemorating the rescue of survivors of the British ship Endurance by the Chilean navy cutter Yelcho on 30 August 1916. Replicas are sited at the Chilean bases Capitan Arturo Prat (62°30'S, 59°49'W) and Presidente Eduardo Frei (62°12'S, 62°12'W).

54. Bust on Ross Island
77°51'S, 166°40'E. Bronze bust on black marble at McMurdo Station (USA) commemorating the polar achievements of Richard E. Byrd, erected in 1965.

55. Buildings and artefacts on Stonington Island, Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula
68°11'S, 67°00'W. Buildings and artefacts at and near East Base of the US Antarctic Service Expedition, 1940-41, and the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition, 1947-48.

56. Remains of hut and environs at Waterboat Point, Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula
64°49'S, 62°51'W. The remains and immediate environs of the Waterboat Point hut, situated close to the unoccupied Chilean station Gabriel Gonzales Videla. Only the base of the boat, foundations of doorposts and an outline of the hut and extension still exist. It was occupied by the UK two-man expedition of Thomas W. Bagshawe and Maxime C. Lester in 1921-22.

57. Plaque at "Yankee Bay"(Yankee Harbour), MacFarlane Strait, Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands
Near a Chilean refuge at 62°32'S, 59°45'W. Erected to the memory of Captain Robert MacFarlane, who in 1820 explored the Antarctic Peninsula area in the brigantine Drágon.

58. De-listed
58. Cairn with memorial plaque erected at Whalers Bay, Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, in the vicinity of the whalers' cemetery (historic monument number 31, 62° 59'S 60° 34'W), to honor captain Adolfus Amandus Andresen, antarctic pioneer who was first to establish a whaling operation at Deception Island in 1906.]

59. Cairn on Half Moon Beach, Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands
62°28'S, 60°46'W. Commemorating the Spanish officers, soldiers and seamen on board the San Telmo which sank in September 1819; possibly the first people to die in Antarctica. Site located within ASPA No. 149

60. Plaque and cairn at 'Penguins Bay', Seymour Island, James Ross Island archipelago
64°16'S, 50°39'W. Commemorating the location at which the Argentine Corvette Uruguay gave assistance to the Swedish Antarctic Expedition led by Otto Nordenskjöld on 10 November 1903.

61. 'Base A' at Port Lockroy, Goudier Island, off Wiencke Island, Antarctic Peninsula
64°49'S, 63°29'W. Of historic importance as an Operation Tabarin base from 1944 and for scientific research.

62. Base F (Wordie House)' on Winter Island, Argentine Islands
65°15'S, 64°16'W. On the south-west corner of Winter Island. Of historic importance as an example of an early British scientific base.

63. 'Base Y' on Horseshoe Island, Marguerite Bay, western Graham Land
67°48'S, 67°18'W. Noteworthy as a relatively unaltered and completely equipped British scientific base of the late 1950s. 'Blaiklock', the refuge hut nearby, is considered an integral part of the base.

64. 'Base E' on Stonington Island, Marguerite Bay, western Graham Land
68°11'S, 67°00'W. Of historical importance in the early period of exploration and later British Antarctic Survey history of the 1960s and 1970s.

65. Message post on Foyn Island, Possession Islands
71°56'S, 171°05'E. A pole with a box attached was placed on the island on 16 January 1895 during the whaling expedition of Henryk Bull and Captain Leonard Kristensen of the ship Antarctic.

66. Cairn at Scott Nunataks, Alexandra Mountains
77°11'S, 154°32'W. At the foot of the main bluff on the north side of the nunataks. Erected by Lieut. Kristian Prestrud on 3 December 1911 during the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition of 1910-12.

67. Rock shelter 'Granite House' at Cape Geology, Granite Harbour
77°00'S, 162°32'E. Constructed as a field kitchen by Taylor's second geological excursion during the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13. It was enclosed on three sides by granite boulder walls and used a sledge to support the roof. Site is a Managed Zone within ASPA No. 154

68. Depot at Hells Gate Moraine, Inexpressible Island, Terra Nova Bay
74°52'S, 163°50'E. Site of an emergency depot consisting of a sledge loaded with supplies and equipment which was placed on 25 January 1913 by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-1913. The sledge and supplies were removed in 1994 in order to stabilize their deteriorating condition.

69. Message post at Cape Crozier, Ross Island
77°27'S, 169°16'E. Erected on 22 January 1902 by Captain Robert F. Scott's Discovery Expedition of 1901-04. It was to provide information for the expedition's relief ships, and held a metal message cylinder which has since been removed. Site is located within ASPA No. 124

70. Message post at Cape Wadworth, Coulman Island
73°19'S, 169°47'E. A metal cylinder nailed to a red pole 8 m above sea level placed by Captain Robert F. Scott on 15 January, 1902. He painted the rocks behind the post red and white to make it more conspicuous.

71. Whaling station at Whalers Bay, Deception Island
62°59'S, 60°33'W. Ruins of the Norwegian Whaling station established in 1912.

72. Cairn on Tryne Islands, Vestfold Hills
68°22'S 78°24'E. A rock cairn and a wooden mast erected by the landing party of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition, 1934-1935, led by Captain Klarius Mikkelsen of the Norwegian whaling ship Thorshavn and including Caroline Mikkelsen, the first woman to set foot on East Antarctica.

73. Memorial Cross, Lewis Bay, Ross Island
77°25'30S, 166°27'30E. A stainless steel cross erected in January 1987 on a rocky promontory 3 km SE from the Mount Erebus crash site in memory of the 257 people of different nationalities who lost their lives when the aircraft in which they were travelling crashed into the lower slopes of Mount Erebus, Ross Island (see ASPA No. 156). The cross was erected as a mark of respect and in remembrance of those who died in the tragedy.

74. Wreckage of sailing ship, Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands.
61°10'S, 55°24'W - 61°17'S, 55°13'W. Wreckage of a large wooden sailing vessel on the beach of the bay between the southern side of Mensa Bay and Cape Lookout, on the south-western coast of Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands, including all of the foreshore and intertidal areas.

75.'A Hut', Pram Point, Ross Island
77°51'S, 166°45'E. The 'A Hut' of Scott Base, Pram Point, Ross Island, being the only existing 1956/1957 Trans-Antarctic Expedition building in Antarctica. Erected in 1956,'A Hut' was the first New Zealand building erected in Antarctica.

76. Ruins of base 'Pedro Aguirre Cerda', Pendulum Cove, Deception Island
62°56'S, 60°36'W. The ruins of the base 'Pedro Aguirre Cerda', being a Chilean meteorological and volcanological centre situated at Pendulum Cove, Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, that was destroyed by volcanic eruptions in 1967 and 1969.

77. Cape Denison
67°00'30"S, 142°39"40". Cape Denison, Commonwealth Bay, George V Land, including Boat Harbour and the historic artefacts contained within its waters. Site incorporated within ASMA No. 3. Part of this site is also designated as ASPA No.162.

78. Memorial plaque at India Point
71°45'08"S, 11°12'30"E. Memorial plaque at India Point, Humboldt Mountains, Wohlthat Massif, central Dronning Maud Land erected in memory of three scientists of the Geological Survey of India (GSI) and a communication technician from the Indian Navy—all members of the ninth Indian Expedition to Antarctica, who sacrificed their lives in this mountain camp in an accident on 8th January 1990.

79. Lillie Marleen Hut, Mt. Dockery, Everett Range, Northern Victoria Land.
7112'S, 16431'E. Lillie Marleen Hut was erected to support the work of the German Antarctic Northern Victoria Land Expedition (GANOVEX I) of 1979/1980. The hut, a bivouac container made of prefabricated fiberglass units insulated with polyurethane foam, was named after the Lillie Glacier and the song "Lillie Marleen". The hut is closely associated with the dramatic sinking of the expedition ship "Gotland II" during GANOVEX II in December 1981.

80. Amundsen's Tent
In the vicinity of 90S. The tent was erected at 90 by the Norwegian group of explorers led by Roald Amundsen on their arrival at the South Pole on 14 December 1911. The tent is currently buried underneath the snow and ice in the vicinity of the South Pole.

81. Rocher du Débarquement, Terre Adélie
66° 36.30'S, 140° 03.85'E. Rocher du Débarquement (Landing Rock) is a small island where Admiral Dumont D'Urville and his crew landed on 21 January 1840 when he discovered Terre Adélie.


HERITAGE SITES

The following listing appears on the website of the Antarctic Heritage Trust at http://www.heritage-antarctica.org/index.cfm/Human/Heritage/ The Antarctic Heritage Trust recognises 34 sites of historic interest in the Ross Sea Region. The following lists each site and its classification.

CATEGORY 1 SITES
Sites listed and specifically protected by the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty:

1. Site of ice cave, Inexpressible Island, Terra Nova Bay

2. Shackleton's hut, Cape Royds

3. Scott's hut, Cape Evans

4. Ross Sea Party cross, Wind Vane Hill

5. Discovery hut, Hut Point

6. Vince's Cross, Hut Point

7. Cross on Observation Hill

8. Rock hut, Igloo Spur, Cape Crozier

9. Borchgrevink and Northern Party huts, Ridley Beach, Cape Adare

10. Hanson's grave, Cape Adare

11. Cairn, Mt. Betty, Queen Maud Mountains

12. Rock hut, Granite Harbour

13. Supply depot, Hells Gate Moraine, Terra Nova Bay

14. Message post, Cape Crozier

15. Message post, Svend Foyn Island

16. Prestrud's cairn, Queen Alexandra Mountains

17. Message post, Cape Wadworth, Coulman Island

CATEGORY 2 SITES
Significant sites which have been recently visited but which do not justify special listing in the Treaty.

18. Supply depot, cairn and camp site, Cape Adare

19. Supply depot, Ridley Beach, Cape Adare

20. Rock hut, Duke of York Island, Robertson Bay

21. Cave, Penelope Point, Robertson Bay

22. Supply depot and cairn, Cape Roberts

23. Supply depot, Mt. Cis, Cape Royds

24. Fokker aircraft wreckage, Rockefeller Mountains

CATEGORY 3 SITES
Sites with historic significance but which have little visible evidence remaining.

25. Supply depot at top of track, Cape Adare

26. Camp site, east side Robertson Bay, Cape Adare

27. Supply depot, Crescent Bay, Duke of York Island, Robertson Bay

28. Supply depot, Depot Island, Ross Sea

29. Camp site, Devils Punchbowl, Granite Harbour

30. Camp site, depot and cairn, Cape Bernacchi

31. Supply depot, Ferrar Glacier, McMurdo Sound

32. Supply depot, Cathedral Rocks

33. Supply depot, Butter Point

34. Supply depot, Davis Bay (now Salmon Bay)

To find out where each site is located, check out the regional maps listed below.

Map - Antarctic Continent

Map - Ross Sea Region

Map - Ross Island


HISTORIC GUIDE TO ROSS ISLAND, ANTARCTICA

More details arranged by the following Table of Contents appear on Rob Holmes' website at http://www.theice.org/historicguide.html. It is also linked from the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs site.

The following are excerpts from the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs publication "Historic Guide to Ross Island, Antarctica." This booklet, first printed in 1971, was prepared for the National Science Foundation by Charles Neider, who worked in the Antarctic while collecting material for his book Edge of the World: Ross Island, Antarctica (New York, Doubleday, 1974, 461p.). It has been updated by the Office of Polar Programs (Revised 1989).

CONTENTS:

Introduction

Discovered in 1841

Scott's Discovery expedition

Shackleton's expedition of 1907-1909

Scott's last expedition

Shackleton's Endurance-Aurora expedition

Operation High Jump

International Geophysical Year

WALKING TOURS:

The "Discovery" Hut

Vince's Cross

Our Lady of the Snows Shrine

Raymond Smith Monument

Old McMurdo

Chapel of the Snows

Richard E. Byrd Memorial

Observation Hill

Fortress Rocks and Crater Hill

Williams Field

Scott Base

Arrival Heights


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